Co-operatives on Hornby Island
Hornby Island is a community steeped in volunteer and co-operative traditions. Members of the Island's community, from the 1800s to the present day, have known that co-operation is an important aspect of living in such a small, isolated community. This focus has led to the establishment of many co-operative ventures, including a credit union, a consumer co-operative store, community school and hall and a highly successful recycling depot. The following exploration of Hornby's past and present reveals a tightly knit, co-operative fellowship extending throughout the years.
Hornby Island is a Northern Gulf island located between the BC mainland and Vancouver Island. It is home to tightly knit community of approximately nine hundred residents.[I] (Fig. 1)[II] Englishmen George Ford and Henry Maude were the first settlers on Hornby Island, arriving with their native wives in the early 1880's and by 1885, they owned 40% of the Island's land.[III] The Island's population grew slowly, mostly with immigrants from the British Isles.[IV] The major influx of immigrants came to Hornby in the 1920s, bringing with them new ideas for the community such as formal organizations, a tourist facility and the building of a community hall.[V] Co-operation was necessary in this burgeoning community and in fact the Community Hall was built in 1928 entirely by volunteers.[VI]
As well, the formal organizations of Hornby Island began early in the community's history. In 1890, the Mutual Improvement Association began and then in 1910, The Progress Club formed. These organizations were mainly social clubs, providing the residents with entertainment and a means of communication with each other.[VII] One family from England, the Bealls, helped to establish organizations such as the Women's and Farmer's Institutes, which were ideas they had brought with them from their homeland. These Institutes were the first of their kind to represent and act on behalf of the community's concerns and members and members included nearly all of Hornby's residents. The Farmer's Institute had many functions such as sponsoring debates and lectures, maintaining the cemetery and buying blasting powder in bulk for members. [VIII]
In 1942, a credit union was established on the Island, which was initially entirely volunteer run.[IX] Its goal was "to provide financial assistance to local enterprises."[X] It started with just ten members, each buying in for ten dollars. By 1960, the Credit Union had lent over two hundred thousand dollars and had assets of close to sixty thousand dollars.[XI] Hilary Brown was a founding member and she was quoted as saying that nearly "every newly bought car, tractor and boat was bought with the Credit Union."[XII] Brown had always been interested in co-operation and felt that, particularly in a small place like Hornby Island, people could truly benefit. In addition to helping to establish the credit union and later the co-op store, Brown and her husband ran British Columbia's first co-operative campsite.[XIII] At the age of ninety-three years old, Brown still resides on Hornby and is an active member of the community.[XIV]
Eventually, the Union Bay Credit Union, which was formed in 1944 on Vancouver Island, took over Hornby Island's co-operative banking. The Union Bay Credit Union original membership "consisted of local families, colliery workers, fishermen, loggers, and sawmill workers."[XV] The credit union is a member-owned co-operative financial institution that combines member share capital with accumulated reserves and dividends to form permanent equity. Dividends are paid annually and all shareholders are entitled to a vote at annual membership meetings. The Union Bay Credit Union opened the Hornby Island Branch in 1992 and continues to serve the financial needs of the community to this day.[XVI](Fig. 2)[XVII]
It was during the 1950s that Hornby Islanders really worked together toward their common goals. Their co-operative efforts included the building of a church and school, the development of a ferry service, a ratepayers' organization, rural mail delivery, electricity service and a proper store. It is clear that most of these developments would not have succeeded without the support of the credit union. [XVIII] The original community school was perhaps the most to benefit from the credit union, as its savings club was run by the credit union. Presently, the Union Bay Credit Union provides ongoing support to the non-profit Hornby School through community partnership donations.[XIX]
Hornby Island is an isolated community, making food runs costly in both time and energy. Early settlers wanted a local supply of goods and in fact as early as 1920s several residents did sell goods including food and tobacco from their homes. From 1940 to the mid-1950s, Jimmy Loutet ran the "Salt Spray Grocery" in an old sawmill building. The store was not making money and in 1954, Loutet fell off a ladder at the store and promptly quit the business.[XX] At this point in time, several of the Island's residents had already been discussing the idea of starting a co-op store. Loutet told them "if you want to take over my store and start a co-op, you'd better get on with it."[XXI] The interested parties worked fast to occupy the store, buying Loutet's stock, forming a board of directors, hiring a manager and selling shares.[XXII] Original shares were ten dollars, which provided very little store capital. Founding members had very little if any experience with formal co-operation, having instead to learn as they went.[XXIII] Members from other co-ops in Vancouver and on Vancouver Island warned the Hornby Islanders against the idea of starting their own co-op, stating it "wasn't a sound economic proposition."[XXIV]
Indeed, these warnings proved to be true; business was very slow; some days only two customers would appear, and often the manager didn't get paid or bill payments had to be deferred for months, waiting until the summer customers appeared.[XXV] Summer visitors were and still are very important to the survival of the Co-op, with over half of the store's annual business occurring during summer months.[XXVI]
In 1957, the co-op's net savings were one hundred and fifty dollars and in 1959 two hundred and fifty-six dollars. In 1961 the co-op ran at a net loss of five hundred and nine dollars, but 1969 netted three thousand eight hundred dollars and trends continued to go up.[XXVII] Despite these fluctuations and unpredictability, the Islanders pressed on as they all realized how important the store was for Island residents. Business did slowly pick up and the co-op members managed, with the assistance of the credit union, to purchase a half- acre of land for a new building. The property was bought for two hundred and fifty dollars and a twenty-eight by twenty-eight foot store was erected with volunteer labor.[XXVIII] By December 1955, residents had the first official Hornby Island Co-operative Store.[XXIX] This store was known as the "kitchen table" of the community, where there was always a pot of soup on, to be shared with anyone wanting to laugh, cry, talk and visit, thereby bring the community closer together.[XXX](Fig. 3)[XXXI]
The first co-op store had an all important one-pump gas bar attached to it, where members often had to self-serve. Some people thought that membership included free gas, which was only discovered when gas sales continued to report losses![XXXII] The gas bar is key to the Co-op's continued success, as each year, the Co-op receives a rebate from the Federated Co-operative Limited (FCL). This rebate is based on the amount of merchandise ordered through the organization and a large percentage of it is generated by the gas bar.[XXXIII] Hornby's gas supply is intricately linked to the Co-operative Retailing System (CRS), whose system purchasing and refining powers allows for Western Canada's co-op gas production. The gas bars and the refinery are linked on a "multi-level, multi-product network nearly three thousand kilometers across and encompassing nearly a million people."[XXXIV] (fig.4)[XXXV]
At the end of the 1960s, a new flux of immigrants arrived on Hornby Island, seeking a simple and creative lifestyle. The co-op store fit well with their philosophies and supported many "happenings," which were full days of music, crafts and events. (Fig. 5a & b)[XXXVI]These days helped to financially support the struggling store. An eager new manager, Ted Wadland, wanted to expand the store's goods to include more building and fishing supplies, yet there was a problem- how to raise enough share capital to expand and grow? Members had to be convinced to assume their share of financial ownership and buy more shares. As well, new residents and part-time residents had to be convinced to participate. All this was a daunting task in a poor community.[XXXVII]
In 1975, the Post Office was moved to the store.[XXXVIII] Around the same time, a restaurant began operation outside the store.[XXXIX] Both additions further encouraged Islanders to come and socialize at the Co-op. It was also at this time the store purchased its first produce cooler and trade really began to increase.[XL] By 1977, the Co-op had five hundred and seven members.[XLI] In the early days only two staff members managed the store, but as the number of summer visitors to the Island increased, the staff had to be increased to four. They included Lorna and Moffat MacPherson, Rita Trimble and Muriel Rogers.[XLII] Most of the staff had very little experience in formal co-ops, although they defiantly had the co-op spirit. For instance, Rogers was born in rural Saskatchewan, where her family was a member of the wheat pool and the local co-op grocery store. Later in life, she became a member of her town's small credit union. Co-operation was a way of life for Rogers and so participation in the Hornby Co-op seemed only natural.[XLIII]
In 1973, Immigration and Manpower Canada started a "training-on-the-job" program. Muriel Rogers was hired and began selling hardware and building supplies for the Co-op.[XLIV]
It took twenty-five years for the Co-op's business to increase ten-fold and to truly demonstrate that is was a "viable financial operation."[XLV] In fact, in 1980, the Co-op ranked second within the Federated Co-op system for its overall performance within its size class.[XLVI] Therefore, in the 1980's plans for a new, larger, rat-free store began to formulate. In 1983, the move occurred, financed by raising the price of membership, a loan from the British Columbia Central Credit Union, and the selling of one thousand dollar share certificates to members.[XLVII] This building was also constructed with volunteer labour and is the current location of the Hornby Co-op Store.
At the time of the move to the new store, the membership share was increased from ten dollars to one hundred and ten dollars, which caused problems for long-time members who now "owed" one hundred dollars. In true co-op spirit, the difference could be made up overtime with "cash, work, or goodwill, or all three."[XLVIII] Patronage refunds were made to reflect the new level of shares held by members, with the one hundred and ten dollar members receiving their full rebate and the ten dollar share members receiving one eleventh of the rebate.[XLIX] It is interesting to note that patronage refunds were occasionally withheld to aid in decreasing debts incurred, for instance when the new store was built.[L] The withholding of rebates also occurred in 2003 to aid in the relocation of the gas bar.[LI]
Two other changes occurred within the Hornby Island Co-op's system during the 1980s. Prior to this time, the store had a two-tier pricing system, with five percent added to non-members. This system produced many difficulties, including extra book keeping for staff and the raising of many questions from non-members. Therefore, the two-tier system was phased out and board members worked on new ideas for membership incentives.[LII] As well, up until this time, the store had offered credit of up to one thousand dollars. Yet this system was often abused as debts went unpaid and limits were exceeded, and therefore it was done away with. In its place, members were offered a pre-paid card, with which money was put into an account and purchases could be made against that account, eliminating the need to carry cash or cheques while shopping.[LIII]
Also occurring during the 1980s was the acceptance of membership loans to the Co-op. Members could loan five hundred or one thousand dollars to the Co-op at an eight and a half- percent annual interest for a five-year term. These loans were used to pay debts to outside sources, occurring during expansion and thus served to strengthen the Co-op's membership owned status.[LIV]
As previously mentioned, the Hornby Island Co-op Association is a member of the FCL. Across Canada, there are about three hundred retail stores, including the Hornby store, and one million members. The FCL is the central wholesale organization serving these stores. Most of the Hornby Islands Co-op's ordering of goods is done through the FCL's central office, which is located in Calgary, Alberta.[LV] In additon to the provision of annual rebates based on purchases, the Association also performs the annual audit of the Hornby Co-operation.[LVI] The FLC also supports the Hornby Island Co-op in other ways, for instance, by connecting it with other local co-ops. In 1998, the regional co-op meeting was held, which included such co-ops as Hornby Island and East Vancouver. At this meeting, the concern regarding the need for full disclosure of ingredients including bovine somatotrophin (BST, a growth-stimulating hormone) was discussed. It was agreed to that the FLC should work towards this goal for all its co-ops and the idea was to be voted on as policy at the next annual general meeting in Saskatoon.[LVII] From this example, it becomes very clear how important it is for co-ops to co-operate amongst themselves, as there is definitely strength in numbers.
Another important aspect of co-ops is education. FCL encourages proper training for directors and staff. The system has a two-level certification program for directors and encourages participation in classes, as well as district and regional meetings.[LVIII] FLC's offering of education and training is well received by the Hornby Island Co-op. For instance, in 1985 the elected Board felt the directors and staff were still generally uneducated in co-op practices and therefore sought to organize three workshops to better train themselves. Island staff received management training workshops provided by the FCL.[LIX]
FCL in turn is a member of the Canadian Co-operative Association (CCA). This Association supports its members and therefore the co-op sector by providing services in "three core areas - development, government affairs & public policy, and common table."[LX] The common table provides a place where co-operatives and credit unions across Canada come together around issues unique to them.[LXI] The CCA is a member of the International Co-operation Alliance (ICA). The ICA is an "independent, non-governmental association which unites, represents and serves co-operatives worldwide."[LXII] The Alliance was founded in 1895, and now has two hundred and twenty-two member organizations from all parts of the world representing all sectors of the economy. Collectively, these co-operatives represent more than eight hundred million individuals worldwide.
The Hornby Island Co-op is also a member of the Vancouver Island Central Services Co-operation Association (VICSCA). This Association also provides a usage based rebate as well as providing services such as new freight vehicles for Island Co-ops, searching for good buys, providing management expertise and training and establishing a universal membership system.[LXIII]
Co-operation is truly a way of life for the residents of Hornby Island. Continued co-operation of all forms is encouraged by and to co-op members. For instance, co-op members support other Island co-op ventures such as artists and farmers, by promoting and purchasing their work. Also, members are given a common membership to other Vancouver Island Co-op stores, for use when visiting other areas such as Sointula and Comox.[LXIV] The Co-op store also helps to support the Hornby School through fund raising efforts such as bottle drives and till tape collections.[LXV]
Presently co-operation ideas are still flourishing on the Island. A marketing co-op for artists, craftsmen and food producers was proposed in 2004 to pool resources, market effectively and share off-island distribution costs.[LXVI] The Economic Enhancement Committee also strives to have Island residents educated in how co-ops work and to show them how other ventures beyond the store can benefit them. Also in 2004, four economic improvement projects were planned and the co-op model was considered for each of them, as the model "just seems to fit" into the way Hornby Islanders do things.[LXVII]
The Hornby Island Co-op operates under very specific rules. At its original inception, members were aware of the Rochdale principles and applied them to the formation of their own rules.[LXVIII] These include open membership, transparency, share entitlement, one vote per member and annual election of board members.[LXIX]
Members are encouraged to participate in the operating decisions of the store by participation in meetings, elections and the occasional questionnaire. One such questionnaire, done in 1985, asked members to give their opinion on the two-tier price system, the option of pre-paid cards and the proposal of a liquor outlet for the store.[LXX] The addition of a liquor store was met with much concern, both from members and the RCMP. Only after much consideration and addressing of the concerns, such as excessive and under-age consumption of alcohol, was alcohol permitted to be sold at the Co-op. Although the original questionnaire took place in 1985, liquor was not sold in the Co-op store until 2000- a full fifteen years after initial discussions.[LXXI]
Hornby Island is a unique community that strives to co-operate in many ways. Another example of this uniqueness is the Hornby Island Residents' & Ratepayers' Association (HIRRA), which was formed to provide residents and property owners with a means of addressing and managing concerns regarding the Island. The Association began in 1973 as a registered, non-profit society. Membership is open to residents and property owners of the island. HIRRA administers resident's tax dollars and puts the money to uses such as trail maintenance, police and fire services, the operation of the Community Hall, stewarding Mount Geoffrey Regional Nature Park and the local cemetery, as well as organizing local recreation activities and economic enhancement.
It has also put together a Vision Statement Summary:
Hornby Islander's have envisioned a future based on our community strengths and our desire to remain a diverse, sustainable and viable community. Central to this vision are the values that we share as a community - creating a balance with the natural world, working together co-operatively and peacefully, taking personal and collective responsibility for the well-being of the community, and celebrating the special spirit and energy of this unique island and its people.[LXXII]
Another example of Hornby Island co-operation extending far beyond the Co-op store is the Hornby Island Recycling Depot, which was opened in 1978 by the Hornby Island Recycling Committee. This committee works under the umbrella of the HIRRA, therefore using funds from local property taxation. After the Depot's inception, Hornby Island quickly became a model for recycling, with over seventy percent of its waste stream either being recycled or reused. This is a monumental saving when compared to the rest of British Columbia. For instance, in 1998, the average British Colombian produced .58 metric tonnes of garbage in one year, while Hornby Islanders only produce .23 metric tonnes! The Depot's success points to the strength of volunteerism and community spirit that define not-for-profit organizations.[LXXIII](Fig. 6)[LXXIV]
Also built with volunteer labour is the Hornby Island Community Access Center. This Center is run by the Hornby Island Educational Society and provides Islanders with access to the computers and the Internet.[LXXV] Near the Access Center sits the Hornby Community Hall, a handmade cordwood structure built by the hands of community volunteers. (Fig.7)[LXXVI] The Hall stages art, music and community events such as movie showings throughout the year. On Saturday mornings in the summer, the lot behind the Hall is home to a farmer's market, where locals sell their wares.[LXXVII]
Presently, the Hornby Island Co-op is facing a new challenge, as the credit union has consistently running at a loss and is considering removing the Hornby Branch from the Island. In 2001, the Union Bay Credit Union (UBCU) conducted an in-depth analysis of the Hornby operation and found the average loss per year to be $33 000. The analysis board recommended that the Hornby Brach be shut down. Yet, the members were clearly upset and promised to do more business with the credit union in the future, which prompted the board to allow the branch to remain open. Yet the branch continued to have very little growth and to lose money. To compensate for this continued loss, the credit union imposed a ten-dollar monthly branch fee for Hornby Island residents in 2005. Island residents, who felt the fee was unfair and that it had been implemented without notice, met this fee with much shock and frustration.[LXXVIII] Residents want the CBCU to remain on the Island for continued community support and services, yet they want the automated backing machine to be placed in a more convenient place. Currently, the bank machine is outside the branch, which is located at the ferry terminal. It is well known by residents and the credit union staff themselves that the machine would be better place more centrally on the Island, namely near the co-op store. The co-op itself has a great need for the branch to remain on the Island, as the credit union handles the store's cash flow. Without the presence of the credit union, the co-op's monies could become vulnerable to theft.
The Island is abuzz with talk of the co-op/credit union problems, yet no real, viable solution has been reached. In March of 2006, the UBCU hired Cindy Thomson to try and find a solution, which includes phoning and meeting with credit union members to promote business with the UBCU. She has been given six months to accomplish this task, yet, as currently only three hundred of the seven hundred members are actively using the Hornby branch, the task is very daunting. As previously mentioned, the UBCU recognizes the need for the relocation of the bank machine, yet this is not feasible, as funds are so low already and other braches are supporting the Hornby Brach through share dividends. The bank machine has also been vandalized four times, which has cost the credit union $6000.[LXXIX] Clearly, the Island residents, along with credit union and co-op members and staff will have to continue to strive to support everyone's best interests and work together to find a solution to this complex problem.
The Hornby Island Co-op Store continues to be a central place for residents and visitors of the Island to congregate. A whole complex called the RingSide Market has formed around the Co-op. Further additions have been made over the years, including a used bookstore, clothing and jewelry stores, a farmer's market, bike shop and an ice-cream stand. As well, there are the Island Potters, which consists of twenty local potters' works.[LXXX] The inside of the Store also reveals the co-operative community spirit, as the staff has volunteered after-hours to transform the store's blank walls into gallery space for local artists. There is a shortage of exhibit space on Hornby and this clearly shows how the Co-op store strives to meet the needs of the community members.[LXXXI] (Fig. 8a & b)[LXXXII]
Hornby Island provides the perfect example of the essential and fundamental connection between community needs and co-operation. This has led to the establishment of many institutions, including a bank, school, community hall, recycling center and of course the all-important co-op store. It is very apparent that the needs and wants of Hornby's community will continue to be served through co-operative means for decades to come.
[I] "Hornby Island Facts," Hornby Island, February 2006. <http://www.hornbyisland.com/> (March 2 2006).
[II] "BC Area Maps," MicroSoft Map Point, 2006. <http:www.tourism.bc.ca> (March 1 2006).
[III] Elizabeth Smith and David Gerow, Hornby Island: The Ebb and Flow (Campbell River: Kask Graphics Ltd., 1988), 3.
[IV] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 19.
[V] Ibid., 31.
[VI] Ibid., 39.
[VII] Ibid., 33.
[VIII] Ibid., 33.
[IX] Grant Shilling, "Growth Rings: The Elders of the Islands," The Cedar Surf, n.d. <http://www.cedarsurf.com/main.html> (23 February 2006).
[X] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 50.
[XI] Hilary Brown, "Just a Store- or Something More?" Hornby Island Co-op (February 1960): 1-2.
[XII] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 50.
[XIII] "2005 Award Winner Profile," Community Stewardship Awards Program, 2005. <http://www.islandstrust.bc.ca/stewardship/awards/tascommunitybrown2005.> (9 March 2006).
[XIV] Shilling, "Growth Rings."
[XV] "About Us," Union Bay Credit Union, 2006. <http://www.unionbaycreditunion.com/default.aspx?PageID=1006> (18 March 2006).
[XVI] "About Us," Union Bay Credit Union.
[XVII] Susan Ritchie, "Union Bay Credit Union," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
[XVIII] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 53.
[XIX] "About Us," Union Bay Credit Union.
[XX] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 71.
[XXI] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 71.
[XXII] Ibid., 71.
[XXIII] Brown, "Just a Store?" Hornby Island Co-op, 1-2.
[XXIV] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 71.
[XXV] Ibid., 71-72.
[XXVI] "Co-op Considers Major Purchase," The First Edition Special Issue (Summer 1980): 1-5.
[XXVII] "Co-op Considers ," The First Edition, 1-5.
[XXVIII] Ibid., 1-5.
[XXIX] Smith, Ebb and Flow, 72.
[XXX] Helen Onorah, "Helen's History of the Co-op," Excerpts form the Co-op Musical, May 2005, 1.
[XXXI] "First Hornby Co-op," 1959, Hornby Island.
[XXXII] Muriel Rogers, "Co-op Tales," Excerpts form the Co-op Musical, May 2005, 1.
[XXXIII] Margaret Sinclair, "Co-op Corner," The First Edition, 195 (May 1999): 11.
[XXXIV] Brett Fairburn. Living the Dream, (Saskatoon: Houghton Boston, 2003), 22.
[XXXV] Susan Ritchie, "Hornby Co-op Gas," 25 February 2006, Hornby Isalnd.
[XXXVI] "Hornby Happenings," 1967, Hornby Island.
[XXXVII] Brown, "Just a Store?" 1-2.
[XXXVIII] Onorah, Excerpts, 1.
[XXXIX] "Editorial," Co-op News (July 1977) 1.
[XL] Onorah, Excerpts, 2.
[XLI] "Editorial," Co-op News (July 1977) 1.
[XLII] Rogers, "Co-op Tales," 1.
[XLIII] Fairburn, Living the Dream, 197.
[XLIV] Rogers, Excerpts, 1.
[XLV] "Co-op Considers," The First Edition, 1-5.
[XLVI] Ibid.,, 1-5.
[XLVII] Onorah, Excerpts, 2.
[XLVIII] Kirsten Humpheries, "Letter from the Board," Hornby Island Co-op (May 1984): 1-2.
[XLIX] Humpheries, "Letter from the Board," 1-2.
[L] "Why be a Member of the Hornby Co-op?" Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985): 1.
[LI] "Minutes: 48th Annual General Meeting," Hornby Island Co-operative Association, (25 May 2003). 3.
[LII] Humpheries, "Letter from the Board," 1-2.
[LIII] "Why be a Member?" Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter, 1.
[LIV] "It's a Million Dollar Store," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985): 2.
[LV] "The Co-operative Retailing System in Western Canada," Co-op n.d. <http://www.fcl.ca/> (21 March 2006).
[LVI] Rogers, personal interview, 25 February 2006.
[LVII] "Co-op Corner," The First Edition 181 (December/January 1998): 15.
[LVIII] Fairburn, Living the Dream, 146-147.
[LIX] "It's a Million Dollar Store," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter, 2.
[LX] "What We Do," Canadian Co-operative Association n.d. <http://www.coopscanada.coop/aboutcca/whatwedo/> (21 March 2006).
[LXI] "What We Do," Canadian Co-operative Association.
[LXIII] "Report on the 1985 Annual General Meeting," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985): 3.
[LXIV] "Members are Encouraged to Support other Co-operatives on Vancouver Island," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985): 3.
[LXV] "Save those Till Tapes," The First Edition 229 (August 2002): 4.
[LXVI] "Marketing Co-op," The First Edition 251 (October 2004): 19.
[LXVII] "Co-ops 101," The First Edition 249 (June 2004): 26.
[LXVIII] Rogers, personal interview, 25 February 2006.
[LXIX] "Rules of the Hornby Island Co-operative Association," FCL Standard Rules, (Revised 22 February 2002) n.p., n.p.
[LXX] "Questionnaire Responses," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985): 4.
[LXXI] Minutes: 47th Annual General Meeting," Hornby Island Co-operative Association, (19 May 2002) 3-4.
[LXXII] "The Hornby Island Community Vision Statements," Hornby Island Ratepayers Association, n.d. <http://www.hirra.ca/vision2.html> (21 March 2006).
[LXXIV] Susan Ritchie, "Hornby Recycle Depot," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
[LXXV] "Sustainability," Hornby Island Community Access Center November 2003 <http://www.valleylinks.net/hornby/> (18 March 2006).
[LXXVI] Susan Ritchie, "Hornby Community Hall," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
[LXXVII] "Hornby Attractions," About Hornby Island, n.d. <http://www.hornbyrealestate.com/hornby-island.htm> (21 March 2006).
[LXXVIII] "Co-op Corner," The First Edition 266 (April 2006): 7-8.
[LXXIX] Robin Rogers, personal interview, 4 May 2006.
[LXXX] "Business Page," Welcome to Hornby Island, 2006. <http://hornbyisland.net//organizations.html> (18 March 2006).
[LXXXI] Fairburn, Living the Dream, 109.
[LXXXII] Susan Ritchie, "Inside the Hornby Co-op Store," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
"About Us," Union Bay Credit Union, 2006 <http://www.unionbaycreditunion.com/default.aspx?PageID=1006> (18 March 2006).
"BC Area Maps," MicroSoft Map Point, 2006. <http:www.tourism.bc.ca> (March 1 2006).
Brown, Hilary. "Just a Store- or Something More?" Hornby Island Co-op (February 1960).
"Business Page," Welcome to Hornby Island, 2006. <http://hornbyisland.net//organizations.html> (18 March 2006).
"Co-op Considers Major Purchase," The First Edition Special Issue (Summer 1980).
"Co-op Corner," The First Edition 181 (December/January 1998): 15
"The Co-operative Retailing System in Western Canada," Co-op n.d. <http://www.fcl.ca/> (21 March 2006).
"Editorial," Co-op News (July 1977).
Fairburn, Brett. Living the Dream, (Saskatoon: Houghton Boston, 2003), 109.
"First Hornby Co-op," 1969, Hornby Island.
"History" and "Stats," Hornby Recycles! n.d. < http://www.hornbyisland.com/Recycle/index.html> 921 March 2006).
"Home," International Co-operative Alliance, 2006 < http://www.coop.org/> (21 March 2006).
"Hornby Attractions," About Hornby Island, n.d. <http://www.hornbyrealestate.com/hornby-island.htm> (21 March 2006).
"Hornby Happenings," 1967, Hornby Island.
"The Hornby Island Community Vision Statements," Hornby Island Ratepayers Association, n.d. <http://www.hirra.ca/vision2.html> (March 21 2006).
Humpheries, Kirsten "Letter from the Board," Hornby Island Co-op (May 1984).
"It's a Million Dollar Store," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985).
"Marketing Co-op," The First Edition 251 (October 2004).
"Members are Encouraged to Support other Co-operatives on Vancouver Island," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985).
"Minutes: 48th Annual General Meeting," Hornby Island Co-operative Association, (25 May 2003).
Minutes: 47th Annual General Meeting," Hornby Island Co-operative Association, (19 May 2002).
Onorah, Helen. "Helen's History of the Co-op," Excerpts form the Co-op Musical, May 2005.
"Report on the 1985 Annual General Meeting," Hornby Island Co-op Newsletter (Summer 1985).
Ritchie, Susan. "Hornby Community Hall," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
Ritchie, Susan. "Hornby Co-op Gas," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
Ritchie, Susan. "Hornby Recycle Depot," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
Ritchie, Susan."Inside the Hornby Co-op Store," 25 February 2006, Hornby Island.
Ritchie, Susan."Union Bay Credit Union," February 2006, Hornby Island.
Rogers, Muriel. "Co-op Tales," Excerpts form the Co-op Musical, May 2005.
Rogers, Muriel. Interview by the author, 25 February 2006.
"Rules of the Hornby Island Co-operative Association," FCL Standard Rules, (Revised 22 February 2002).
"Save those Till Tapes," The First Edition 229 (August 2002).
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